Inside a gas regulator, there are three important features: a loading mechanism, control element, and sensing element. These three parts work together to help regulate gas at various pressures. When high pressure is involved in the process, there are three key forces to take into account. The forces are inlet pressure force, outlet pressure force, and loading mechanism force. Here is more information about the key forces of high-pressure gas regulators.
Inlet Pressure Force
Inside the gas cylinder, there is a force of pressure called inlet pressure force. The force tries to shut the poppet of the regulator in an attempt to close the orifice. Inlet pressure force and temperature must be balanced for the pressure regulator valve to close or open accordingly. Pressure must also remain consistent. If the loading mechanism’s force is greater than the combined force coming from the inlet and outlet pressure forces, the valve will not be able to close. It will stay open, and gas will be able to flow through the orifice. Many specialty gases come in high-pressure cylinders, so it’s important to take these facts into account if you purchase those types of gases.
Outlet Pressure Force
Some pressure gets through before the inlet pressure force shuts the poppet of the regulator. That force is called outlet pressure force. It is a force that pertains to gas that has just passed through the orifice. It goes against the sensing element. The sensing element senses those changes in outlet pressure and allows the regulator to react to those changes based on how much pressure it sensed. The sensing element also creates a physical link between the loading and control elements. Much like the inlet pressure force, outlet pressure force tries to close the orifice by the end of its process.
Loading Mechanism Force
The last of the key forces of high-pressure gas regulators is the loading mechanism force. The loading mechanism force is the one that opposes the two other forces mentioned above. It comes from the opposite direction and puts a force of pressure that affects the adjustment knob. Then, the adjustment knob applies that force to the sensing element from the other side of the element. The goal of this loading mechanism force is to open the orifice.